Negotiating the Elements: Palestinian Freedom Songs from 1967 to 1987 Issa Boulos Part 2: Identity 4. Let's take a look at some interesting variations on the musical theme that some people may not have perceived to be of African origin. Armenian doudouks recorded for Ocora Records under the direction of Robert Ataian. Ugandan Instruments - Including the Adangu which is a 9-stringed arched harp which is played both as a solo instrument or as part of an ensemble. Malagasy Instruments - Including the Marovany which is a steel-stringed Boxed Zither originally finding its home in Madagascar.
Another interesting instrument to be found in this category is the Valiha which is considered a Tube Zither. Black African instruments are categorized based on the regions they are predominantly played in: A. Djiboutian Instruments - Including the Tanbura which is a Bowl Lyre, characterized by having one to three strings stretched across a wooden frame made from three branches. Another interesting instrument is the Endingidi which is a single stringed bowed instrument known specifically in Uganda. Sung poetry, particularly informal verse, changes with local dialects. Moslih Kanaaneh is a social anthropologist in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Birzeit University. Obviously we must make a leap of faith here in terms of extrapolating from known information about ancient cultures, and certainly new data is constantly being presented that may or may not support current theories of human origins.
Eritrean Instruments - Including the Krar or Kirar which is a five or six-stringed Bowl Lyre often played as accompaniment to a meal or other pleasurable event. Moroccan Instruments - Including the Sintir, a three-stringed instrument introduced into North African music by the Gnawa tribe and resembling the strange and perverse marriage between a bass and a banjo and tuned to C-C-G, where the second C-string is an octave higher than its neighbor. Drawing from a long history of indigenous traditions and incorporating diverse influences of surrounding cultures, music in Palestine and among the millions of Palestinians in diaspora offers a unique window on cultural and political events of the past century. But, for the sake of argument we'll make the assumption that human beings began their sojourn into the world on the continent known as Africa. The Arghul has affected the musical tone, ceremonial occasions, and culture of the Middle East today.
This instrument is often used in ceremonies particularly in the Zar ritual which involves possession of an individual, usually a female for malevolent purposes. The flute has four holes and is usually played in a melismatic fashion, not unlike the chanting made reference to earlier in the article. Particular melodies, specifically those of Andalusian or Syrian muwashshahat, may be centuries old, but it is highly unlikely that they have remained exactly the same throughout the years. Rhythmic modes also have varying articulations in different locales, and the styles of melodies and renditions differ. The Ghosts of Resistance: Dispatches from Palestinian Art and Music Yara El-Ghadban and Kiven Strohm. From the perspective of scholars, performers, composers, and activists, Palestinian Music and Song examines the many ways in which music has been a force of representation, nation building, and social action. This type of Zither is constructed from bamboo and strings usually constructed from used bicycle brake cables.
Subsequently, older fragile representatives of instruments as well as accurate depictions of instruments indigenous to the region are sometimes vague, according to some. Whether Western instruments have evolved from ancient African forms, or we have adopted knowledge in terms of rhythms and cross rhythms, various scale patterns, or simply the evolution of melody and harmony, Western music undoubtedly owes an immeasurable debt of gratitude to our African brothers and sisters for their wisdom, insight and creativity. The Imifece is a percussive instrument worn during ceremonies involving drumming, song and clapping. The instrument dates back before the birth of Christ and can be played by holding it between the legs or under one's arm and plucking the strings gently. Unlike the similar , the arghul has fingering holes on only one of the instrument's pipes the melody pipe , and the drone pipe has a detachable length that allows the player to alter the pitch of the drone. Performative Politics: Folklore and Popular Resistance during the First Palestinian Intifada David A.
The Anzad is another notable Tuareg instrument characterized by having only one string and being played only by women during evening ceremonies. Palestinian Music: Between Artistry and Political Resistance Stig-Magnus Thorsén 11. It is seen as a landmark in the popularisation of , and won a in 1990. House borrows elements liberally from Rhythm and Blues, Soul as well as Funk and disco but infuses an element of electronica into the mix. In jazz culture, it was considered as the main instrument for not only jazz composition, but also improvising performance. The Iraqi maqam is not simply a melodic mode, but an unfolding of pieces in a particular mode.
Interestingly enough, it has also been amplified in modern day musical settings giving it broader applications. Ancient Egyptian Instruments - Including the Arghul, a single reed woodwind instrument, the Kanun, a Turkish stringed instrument loosely resembling the modern day harpsichord, and the Pandura a three-stringed lute instrument originating from ancient Greece. Later in the year a companion album was released, , featuring additional songs on which Gabriel does not perform. Consequently, much of the music is monophonic having a single often simple melody and melodic in structure. Jones' work on this topic helped to distinguish sub Saharan music from other African music, and from Western music although there are specific examples in the annals of classical music that defy this notion see Beethoven's 3rd Symphony.
The first two tracks feature the improvisations of Saad Mustafa Soliman, and the third track features Abdin Hossein as the reis or lead singer, accompanied by tabla baladi or double-skinned drum. As mentioned earlier in the article, many African cultures perform various forms of their music in order to bring about a trance state in themselves as well as their listeners. Unlike the similar mijwiz , the arghul only has fingering holes on one of the instrument's pipes the melody pipe , and the drone pipe has a detachable length that allows the player to alter the pitch of the drone. This simple instrument is made of wood or cane and is usually used as a solo instrument. Trance states seem to be common goal amongst numerous varieties of African music and song, giving the music a hypnotic, even meditative character.
The word maqam in Iraq carries a meaning closer to that of waslah or nawbah than it does maqam in other places. There are two çifte types known as Demli Çifte and Demsiz Çifte. Because the areas in question are so vast and are populated by many different groups of nomadic peoples, instruments from one region are likely to be found in others as well. The Arab music tradition developed in the courts of dynasties in the Islamic Empire from the seventh to the thirteenth century. Explanation The arghul, also spelled argul, arghoul, arghool, argol, or yarghul, is a traditional Egyptian musical instrument. Many composers were known to keep copy books with them at all times in order to write down any inspiration that they may get from hearing other pieces.