Authoritarian regimes often performed poorly in terms of economic development and, together with extensive human rights violations, lost legitimacy internally. Content on this website is from high-quality, licensed material originally published in print form. The and Latin America in the era Whatever policies Latin American countries adopted in the postwar era, they had to take into account the probable reaction of the United States, now more than ever the dominant power in the hemisphere. Later Santa Anna became a conservative and passed some of the most reactionary legislation in Mexico's history. Or were the economic changes that led to the birth of the middle class more responsible for the fall of oligarchic regimes? Critics constantly charge that such support conflicts with U.
During his career, O'Donnell played a leadership role in many professional associations. The Chilean model was based, in any event, on the application of neoliberal policies—reduction of trade barriers, privatization of state companies, encouragement of foreign as well as domestic private investment, and lessening of regulation generally—that to one degree or another were ultimately adopted by all countries, including within limits the surviving communist dictatorship of Cuba. Developments in social policy Continued advances in were the principal basis for the explosion of population growth, which in turn made more difficult the provision of other social services. But the Argentine economy seemed to stagnate, and few countries scored significant gains. Perhaps the most common unifying thread among caudillos was their appeal to nationalism.
Counterpoints: Selected Essays on Authoritarianism and Democratization. He also held many short term appointment at universities around the world. Previous authoritarian regimes included liberal and conservative from the mid 1800s and populist from 1930s. Falling birth rates likewise indicated that women were pursuing new options. Authoritarianism: Traditional interpretations of authoritarianism in root this phenomenon in the style of Iberian colonization in the region. A country that had one of the longest democratic traditions in Latin America now became a prime example of an authoritarian regime that suppressed the basic principles of liberal democracy, including values of individual freedom, civil liberties, social and economic equality, and free elections.
The problem, nevertheless, was obviously driven by an intertwining of military and business interests. In 1968 O'Donnell left Argentina to pursue graduate studies in at. Neither did and government expenditures shrink very rapidly, if they shrank at all. Caudillos: Dictators in Spanish America. See also Democracy ; Dictatorship in Latin America ; Nationalism ; Pluralism ; Populism ; Totalitarianism.
D in political science from Yale University until he presented a new dissertation and thus was awarded his Ph. James Malloy emphasises on the corporatist character of bureaucratic authoritarian regimes and the relative autonomy of the state visa-vis the dominant social classes and economic interests. Counterpoints: Selected Essays on Authoritarianism and Democratization. Uncivil Movements: The Armed Right Wing and Democracy in Latin America. Rather than fostering democratic institutions, U. Chapel Hill: University of Press, 1999. The advent of The phenomenon of populism was another feature of the mid-20th-century political scene.
Land reform however did not benefit in any way the subsistence peasantry, which continued to till their small plots of land. Santa Anna's promises to deliver political stability and prevent social dissolution were more important than differences in ideology. Whether through repressive measures or systemic controls, oligarchies were closed systems politically and economically. He abrogated land titles of Indian peasants and sold off large slices of Bolivian territory as if it were his own personal property in order to generate funds to put down chronic revolts against his government. By the end of the twentieth century, with a reemergence of democratic governments throughout Latin America, authoritarianism appeared to be safely buried in the past. The response of Latin American establishments was twofold and eagerly supported by the United States. In the 1960s in much of Latin America the annual rate of population increase came to exceed 3 percent.
Political alternatives Movement toward The Latin American countries that did not opt for the Cuban model followed widely varying political paths. Schneider Business Politics and the State in Twentieth-century Latin America 2004 Chapt. Uncivil Movements: The Armed and Democracy in Latin America. Yet even more striking was the appearance of a strong nationwide Indianist movement in , which sought not only immediate improvements for Native Americans but also formal recognition that Ecuador was a multiethnic, multicultural nation. The most important of the guerrilla organizations was the , or Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia, which enjoyed scant popular support but profited greatly from the sale of protection to drug producers and dealers. Corporatist theories, which gained popularity in the 1950s, emphasized this Iberian heritage of authoritarianism to explain underdevelopment in Latin America.
At critical historical junctures e. He earned his master's degree in political science in 1971, but rather than complete his dissertation and take a job offer from , he returned to Buenos Aires. But there were clear differences in economic performance among countries. A group of lieutenants in the Brazilian army rebelled in 1922 but were crashed by senior officers under the command of the Minister of War General Setembrino, perceived to be the most corrupt. In addition, coinciding as it did with the given to leftist movements by the Cuban Revolution, the call for renewal inspired an influential minority of priests and nuns to seek a synthesis of religious faith and political commitment under the banner of. Popular education also increased, as did exposure to the mass media and mass culture—which in light of the economic lag served to feed dissatisfaction. A threat developed in Central America when the government of 1951—54 , which frankly accepted the support of local communists, attacked the holdings of the as part of an ambitious though ultimately abortive land reform.
The poor were also hurt by the high inflation that in the 1950s and after became in Brazil and the Southern Cone and was intermittently a problem elsewhere, resulting in considerable part from an inability or unwillingness to generate by taxation the fiscal resources needed for economic and programs. These regimes resulted from a failure of democracy to extend the protections of citizenship to an entire population. Mariano Malgarejo from is often considered to be a classic representation of the later. It was not, of course, a complete novelty. Moreover, structural received more lip service than actual implementation. Unfortunately, economic inequalities persisted and even grew as part of neoliberal policies that were retained even after O'Donnell's long-desired return to democratic governance in Latin America. The regime maintained its autonomy from the underlying economic forces; and by introducing structural changes sought to change the pattern of class formation and societal balance in favour of national bourgeoisie, state bureaucracy and the white-collar workers.