For example, the Home Office publishes most crime statistics yearly. As referenced in the Item there are a myriad of techniques to conceal white collar and business crime, for instance the perpetrator's technology skills. Examine the problems sociologists may find when using participant observation in their research. Thus, individual terms as death of 6 persons in a accident, 85% results of a class of a school in a particular year, will not amount to statistics as they are not placed in a group of similar items. An advantage of covert participant observation could be that more valid research will be gained as they study is.
To give the best service to these companies they place a lot of value. As a secondary source of data official statistics come ready coded and presented, which can be hard to do with some data, particularly qualitative. Another advantage is that statistics allow sociologists to make comparisons over time, as they are usually produced regularly, for example the Population Census, which is carried out every ten years. Traditional participant observation is usually undertaken over an extended period of time, ranging from several months to many years, and even generations. They offer the opportunity to identify trends in crime over time. Market research guides your communication with current and potential customers.
Data and numerical data such as official statistics are closed ended. A well-known example of this is that the method of collecting unemployment statistics has changed many times, which gives the appearance that the unemployment rate it falling. Many types of research could be used to make the world a better or even healthier place and this is why statistics and research is important in all fields of study. For some topics, therefore, secondary research is the only. In summary, as Hindess has suggested, official statistics are often treated in a positivist manner, as if they provide cast iron factual data about crime. For example the Home Office Crime Rates Statistics do not take into account the fact that not all crime is reported.
It is also cheaper to use official statistics as having to collect qualitative data could result in travel costs by moving to the area of the study. When carrying out participant observations, whether covert or overt, there are many problems that can occur, including time, cost, bias, replication, generalisation, validity, reliability and ethical issues. They also tend to be well organised and planned when researched, so the standards of sociological research can be met. New Right favour segregated conjugal roles and Marxists believe segregated conjugal roles are a negative thing. Austria-Hungary's fears of looking weakby not punishing Serbia for the assassination of its crownprince. Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany's militaryaggressiveness. Difference between survey and survey research In general, a survey is a means of gathering information about one or many certain characteristics, or opinion of a population.
Furthermore, When a white collar crime has been detected, it may be internally processed by a committee, where instead of being charged, the perpetrator may be sacked or asked to pay a fine. When sociologists carry out an investigation, they can carry out their research in a number of ways. Similarly, official statistics reflect the biases and prejudices of those in power — The fact that African-Caribbeans and Muslims are over represented in prison suggests people from these groups have higher levels of criminality. The majority of sociologists could probably not afford to carry out such vast research. Interpretivists on the other hand, do not approve of structured interviews, they believe them to be fundamentally flawed because the respondent is not always free to answer in the way they wish. Two main sources of official statistics are the government and its departments, and surveys. Another factor which must be considered when interpreting official statistics is that because official statistics are usually produced by the government, they may be politically biased, for example to show that their policies are having the predicted effect.
For example, a large sample is likely to contain one or more anomalous results. Marxists would also argue that different social classes are policed differently, with the working class heavily policed in the expectation that they will be more criminal and therefore raising the chances of their crimes being detected Trueman, 2018. There are variety of different types of statistics, hard statistics are numerical data that can not be manipulated, soft statistics are numerical data that can be manipulated, official statistics are produced by formal institutions whilst unofficial are carried out by informal institutions. All sociological research methods involve observation, however, according to Hughes participant observations is defined by when the researcher themselves participates in the activities of those he or she is observing and studying. The social sciences can be seen through victimization surveys and through self-report studies. Such phenomena cannot be a part of the study of statistics.
Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. In other words, sociologists can compare statistics to see if there is a trend between two related sets of information, e. Official statistics are used by sociologists because of their many advantages. In the field of Psychology it is important to do your research and record your statistics. However, although they think that official statistics are not social facts, but social constructs, this does not mean they are not of sociological interest.
On the positive side, case studies obtain useful information about individuals and small groups. A well-known example of this is that the method of collecting unemployment statistics has changed many times, which gives the appearance that the unemployment rate it falling. Words: 527 - Pages: 3. There are two types of Official Statistics. Words: 426 - Pages: 2. Official statistics have a number of apparent advantages to the sociological researcher.