The first factor is the attitudes of others i. The Fourth Field is concerned with the post purchase behavior, use of product, its storage and consumption. Mostly people do not find any difference between the two. However, the information sources also include sales and service personnel who can add and help the marketing efforts of the firm. He must investigate where the product falls short. This stimulates the search for information internally memory , externally neighbours, colleagues, and friends and from market sources advertisements, trade literature, magazine reports.
According to this model, the behaviour of consumers gets motivated by their needs and consumer needs never ceases to exist but arise one after another with passing time. Process is concerned with the. High satisfaction results in elevated brand performance while dissatisfaction leads to lower brand performance. This model explains how purchase decision are made in an industrial organization. When all of the activities happen in the perfect manner the message is retained in the memory of the consumer retention. Field one consists of sub fields one and two.
The psychological model divides the needs into Psychological Needs, Safety and Security Needs, Social Needs, Ego Needs and Self Actualization Needs. His model lumps these activities into four basic fields. These are known as implicit objectives. These groups can be classified into Primary and secondary ones. When it is directed towards a drive-reducing object, it becomes a motive. The four areas of the decision-making process in Nicosia Model In Nicosia Model the is divided into four areas graphically presented on fig.
The Pavlovian Learning Model It is the most widely accepted theory by psychologists all over the world. Stage 2: Stage 3: Evaluation of Alternatives: Once the consumer has conducted an information search, how does he process competitive brand information and make a final judgment? In an early study of the buyer decision process literature, Frank Nicosia Nicosia, F. It assumes problem solving approach in buying and adopts input-output or system approach in buying. If he is satisfied, he buys the product again, and talks favourably. These include such variables as: value of purchase for the buyer, the character traits of the consumer, membership of a social group, the financial status of a consumer, the pressure of time. Religion was considered as external factor with no real influence on consumer, which give the model obvious weakness in anticipation the consumer decision. Also, these advertisements have a higher recall value amidst the advertisement clutter.
The buyer will have certain mental rules for matching and ranking the purchase alternatives. Engineers look for quality and standardization of the product. According to his model the messages from the firm first influence the predisposition of the consumer towards the product, he develops a certain attitude towards the product depending on the situation. This last step is not only the consumption of a product but also a very important factor for the future decisions of the consumer. Though he decides very systematically, there is no guarantee of a complete satisfaction.
Consumer behaviour not only helps companies plan market strategies, but also facilitates the process of new product development to cater to the needs of customers. In this situation, the consumer will seek information about all the different brands in the market before purchasing. This model analyses the feedback of both the firm and the consumer after purchasing the product. Buying problem arises only when there is unmet need or problem is recognized. The first factor is attitudes of others. The obvious ones are product quality, delivery time, quantity of supply, after sales service and price.
With these characteristics, they develop certain expectations from the product to be bought. As a result values like nurture and care have been preferred to ambition and achievement. It analyse human being as a system with stimuli as the input to the system and the human behaviour as an output of the system. Journal of consumer research, 25 3 , 187-217. The essence is how the activities of the firm influence the consumer and result in his direction to buy. If the above step satisfies the consumer, it may result in a positive response, with a decision to buy the product otherwise the reverse may occur.
That is his buying decisions are governed by social compulsions. She has assisted data scientists, corporates, scholars in the field of finance, banking, economics and marketing. According to Philip Kotler, the typical buying process involves five stages the consumer passes through described as under: 1. The perception of the message is influenced by attributes of both the company and the consumer, and may lead to the development of an attitude towards the brand. He may abandon product, complain to the company for compensation, resort to the court and warn other organisations, friends, relatives and co-workers to avoid product. That is why marketer says: Our best advertisement is a satisfied consumer. There are six types of members in a family structure who exert influence over the purchasing decision of the others in the family.