This war, which lasted from 1689 till 1697, left France in possession of Strasbourg, which Louis had seized in 1681, but exhausted and in no shape to meet the still greater war that was about to break out. He allowed French literature to flourish by protecting influential writers such as Molière, Racine and La Fontaine. While Louis ruled, France became the most powerful country in all of Europe, and many other countries copied the French people's way of dressing and thinking. They had no intention of allowing the French to pose the same threat by occupying the territories on their border. Those events left a deep mark on the young Louis. In his image, the former Libertines became devotees, a veil of decency overlaid ostentation, play and entertainment, who in his not at all complete disappearance left place to the boredom and hypocrisy. A long and bitter quarrel 1673-93 with the pope was concluded when the king withdrew the French clergy's Four Gallican Articles of 1682, in which they had claimed quasi-independence from the papacy for the French church see Gallicanism.
When the French monarch accepted testamentary clauses, returned to raise the dilemma: hegemony of France or continental balance, and its decision meant a declaration of war. The war brought him some valuable frontier towns in Flanders. The Alliance was formed by Emperor Leopold I. The permanent state of war forced to continuously increase the troops, by using the cams forced, very unpopular among the population. He was the oldest of two brothers the other being. Cardinal Mazarin was victorious in 1653 and constructed an extraordinary administration for the kingdom. Louis has been criticized by some historians for turning the French nobility into gilded parasites, but it may be doubted, as the Fronde demonstrated, whether they were fit to play any more constructive role.
Thus, the year 1661 marked the advent of a new era in France and in Europe, that of the absolute monarchy. It created new bodies for a monarchy that is increasingly more was a bureaucratic machine: the Conseil de Depeches for relations with the provinces, the Conseil des Finances, the Conseil de Justice or the general inspectorate of finance. However, France's frequent involvement in European wars depleted the treasury, requiring the government to raise taxes against the wishes of the people. On the other hand, he provoked controversy when he restored Catholic religious unity by revoking the Edict of Nantes and repressing Protestantism. Let's look at his death, and then explore his legacy. Indeed, no constitutional reform or safeguards against royal authority was achieved by the Fronde - if anything, absolutist monarchical rule returned stronger than ever.
He was obliged to rule for the benefit of his people. Nevertheless, he did his duty as he saw it, with a quite exceptional conscientiousness and devotion. Neither the government of France by a group of overlapping councils nor the administration of the provinces by intendants royal agents equipped with full powers in every field originated with Louis, but he took over these systems, making them more comprehensive and efficient, and extending the system of intendants for the first time to the whole of France. The creation of income and sales of crafts, with some success at the beginning multiplied. Under Colbert commerce, industry, and overseas colonies were developed by state subsidies, tight control over standards of quality, and high protective tariffs. Colbertista policy had major successes domestically. The allies fought hard, and they were doing well.
Life at Versailles was soon losing its splendor and the huge halls, once full of laughter, became an icy stagehands without life. Schools were closed, demolished temples and amphitheaters shepherds, while the exodus of thousands of Protestants to the Netherlands was creating pockets of hostility towards the King. He married Marie Therese, an Infanta from Spain, solidifying the relationship between France and Spain. The Princes of blood and even the own mother Queen were excluded from it. Money was lavished on buildings.
The genius of the English general the duke of Marlborough and his Austrian counterpart, Eugene of Savoy, was almost too much for the ducs de Villars, Berwick, and Vendome, who were Louis's principal generals. The Holy Roman Empire was on their side. However, his own passion for personal glory led him to drag France into a series of wars, ultimately at appalling cost to his people. As the power of the local nobility was usurped and centralized in the monarchy, Louis and his able advisors took advantage of this new authority to standardize and modernize many facets of French government, economy, and law. In Exchange, he had to give up the dynastic union of France and Spain. Louis was born at Saint-Germain on Sept. A strong navy allowed France to adopt an aggressive expansionist policy in both colonization and commerce.
Louis said the only pain she ever causedhim was when she died at the age of 44 on 30 July 1683. The battle of Malplaquet took undecided results. He recognized Guillermo de Orange as King of England and evacuated the fortresses in the Netherlands. He extended support to writers and visual artists like Molière, Racine, Pierre Mignard, Antoine Coysevox and Hyacinthe Rigaud, making their works famous throughout Europe. During the war, Emperor Joseph I of Austria died unrelated to the fighting.
The King's enthusiasm for building Versailles, Marly, Trianon, and others , while costing the country more than it could afford, certainly furnished artists and architects with valuable commissions, and the King's love of musical spectacles offered a golden opportunity for composers. Louis revoked, or ended, the. For much of Louis's reign, France was the leading power in Europe, engaging in three major wars. This shaped his character and he would never forgive either Paris, the nobles, or the common people. The terrible French winter of 1709 and near fiscal collapse also took their toll. The great economic effort which required the continuous state of war forced the monarchy to look for new sources of revenue.