Open your classroom up to respectful discussions about race, culture, and other differences. What seems to have been lost with the introduction of multicultural education was the desired outcome. Teachers should help students to understand that while they live in a diverse nation, all citizens of a nation-state share many cultural traditions, values, and political ideals that cement the nation. To clarify, without a clear understanding of true culture, educators could easily misattribute detrimental conduct or sub-par behavior to a minority student's cultural background Fullinwider, 2005 or misinterpret signs that a student may require out-of-school intervention. It is not simply membership in any culture but one's own culture that must be secured in order for cultural membership to serve as a meaningful context of choice and a basis of self-respect.
A critical part of multicultural education, the idea that knowledge is a human construct challenges teachers to alter their own perceptions of the world before they can teach multiculturally. Philosophers see multicultural education as a method of response to minorities within a society who advocate for their own group's rights or who advocate for special considerations for members of that group, as a means for developing a child's sense of autonomy, and as a function of the civic good. Barber in Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age, first published in 1984 and published again in 2003. While ethnic minority students learn in many contexts about the mainstream society in which they live, for White students the school context might be the only places where they can have meaningful encounters with ethnic and religious others. Also, having teachers who are themselves members of minorities would be encouraged. In this approach, the structure, assumptions, and perspectives of the curriculum are changed so that the concepts, events, and issues taught are viewed from the perspectives and experiences of a range of racial, ethnic, and cultural groups. This is done while at the same time helping students to understand the nation's common heritage and traditions.
The students from different racial and ethnic groups must feel that they have equal status in intergroup interactions, teachers and administrators must value and support cross-racial interactions, and students from different racial groups must work together in teams to pursue common goals. The Importance of Multicultural Literature Gaining a better understanding of other cultures, such as those featured in the novels we've discussed, can help us gain insight into our own. The success of the Civil Rights Movement sparked an interest in the women's rights movement, along with the. Multicultural education began to represent the significance in understanding and respecting diversity in various groups as much as finding the important meaning within one's own cultural identity. Liberal egalitarian defenders of multiculturalism like Kymlicka maintain that special protections for minority cultural groups still hold, even after we adopt a more cosmopolitan view of cultures, because the aim of group-differentiated rights is not to freeze cultures in place but to empower members of minority groups to continue their distinctive cultural practices so long as they wish to.
However, there are often problems in defining multicultural education, let alone coming up with creative ways to serve diverse populations of students. Students felt they went from not caring about school at all to having a sense of empowerment from the program, which led to motivation to get better grades, finish school and have more confidence in themselves as who they are. Staff must be multiculturally literate and capable of including and embracing families and communities to create an environment that is supportive of multiple perspectives, experiences, and democracy. It was this victory that widened the path towards multicultural education and laid the course for nationwide integration, as well as a tremendous boost for the civil rights movement. The migration crisis has tapped into fears about terrorism and security, especially after the November 2015 Paris and July 2016 Nice attacks; it has also renewed concerns about the limits of past efforts to integrate newcomers and their descendants.
His argument is that since the state cannot achieve complete disestablishment of culture or be neutral with respect to culture, it must somehow make it up to citizens who are bearers of minority religious beliefs and native speakers of other languages. Like Amir, Okonkwo experiences internal conflict that stems from his relationship to his father. Because complete state disestablishment of culture is not possible, one way to ensure fair background conditions is to provide roughly comparable forms of assistance or recognition to each of the various languages and religions of citizens. Theory into Practice, 34 3 , 151-158. By granting cultural groups special protections and rights, the state oversteps its role, which is to secure civility, and risks undermining individual rights of association.
Each new generation of their family represents the cultural and industrial changes of Mercado from a rural village to a modern town. Multicultural Education Multicultural education is a philosophical concept built on the ideals of freedom, justice, equality, equity, and human dignity as acknowledged in various documents, such as the U. The center of the curriculum no longer focuses on mainstream and dominant groups, but on an event, issue, or concept that is viewed from many different perspectives and points of view. Kymlicka and other liberal theorists of multiculturalism contend that antidiscrimination laws fall short of treating members of minority groups as equals; this is because states cannot be neutral with respect to culture. Students of exception are also a group that civil rights advocates have been fighting for in the implementation of quality multicultural education. Practicality and feasibility should also be important considerations. Multicultural education is a way to promote the civic good.
Involve the community in this plan. Kymlicka adds cultural membership to this list of unchosen inequalities. An educated electorate would understand politics and the economy and make wise decisions. It is also a matter of economic interests and political power: it includes demands for remedying economic and political disadvantages that people suffer as a result of their marginalized group identities. Their overall objective is to include subject matter in the curriculum about various cultural groups in order to cultivate students' knowledge about these groups.
Levinson also brings up, similar to Fullinwider, the conflict between minority group preservation and social justice and equity. Multicultural education is a complex subject with many concepts. We sometimes avoid, intentionally or otherwise, questioning longstanding traditions and beliefs and may eventually forget their origin and meaning. White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America. Fullinwider also discusses challenges which could arise in multicultural education when teachers from the majority culture begin to delve into these deeper issues. The dynamic and variable nature of culture makes teaching about multiple cultural influences a daunting if not impossible task.
Liberals tend to be ethical individualists; they insist that individuals should be free to choose and pursue their own conceptions of the good life. One important condition of autonomy is having an adequate range of options from which to choose Raz 1986. He argues that a liberal theory of minority group rights defends external protections while rejecting internal restrictions 1995, 35—44;1999, 31. International Journal of Educational Management. On the other hand, political theorists advocate a model of multicultural education that warrants social action.
In contrast to Barry, liberal multiculturalists argue that many cases where a law or policy disparately impacts a religious or cultural practice constitute injustice. An empowering school culture and social structure is created when the culture and organization of the school are transformed in ways that enable students from diverse racial, ethnic, and gender groups to experience equality and equal status. For example, the Bible, Roman mythology, and the Grimms' fairy tales have all influenced American culture, but these cultural sources cannot be seen as part of a single cultural structure that multiculturalists like Kymlicka aim to protect. For example, what lessons have states that only recently opened up to significant immigration, such as South Korea, drawn from the experiences of other states, and what sorts of multiculturalism policies have they adopted and why? I have a responsibility to myself to examine the lenses through which I understand the people and happenings around me. When students learn content about the nation and the world from the perspectives of the diverse groups that shaped historical and contemporary events, they will be better able to participate in personal, social, and civic actions that are essential for citizens in a democratic pluralistic society. Student services: A handbook for the profession. Some critics contend that theories of multiculturalism are premised on an essentialist view of culture.