The architecture presented here suggests a set of organizational roles that should be explicitly defined. Is there a defined access control in place? The Software Engineering Institute maintains a bibliography of journal and conference papers about software architecture and its population is approaching 1000. Context: Information from artifacts in each phase of the software development life cycle can potentially be mined to enhance architectural knowledge. The analysis indicated that the framework describing cyber terrorism can be considered from six components: motivation, target, method of attack, domain, action by perpetrator and impact. However, little is known about the state of art of decision-reuse and the benefits and challenges associated with reusing decisions. Historically however, it is difficult to appreciate the results of the design process outside the context in which the design process takes place. Depending on company size, technology infrastructure can be minimal or overwhelmingly large and complex.
About the Author: Yanko Ivanov is highly-skilled management consultant focusing on business analysis, system design, and integration. This paper serves as a call for awareness of this gap between intention and reality, and questions the biased focus on intentional codification alone. Ray Kroc gained tremendous leverage in articulating and routinizing the process of cooking a hamburger to produce a consistent if not gourmet level of quality. Design space exploration is the simultaneous analysis of problem and solution spaces for a specific domain or application scope. Thus, systems theory lends a structure by which the concepts of motivation, leadership, and participation can be applied effectively within the organization. This knowledge management architecture is illustrated with examples of two companies that are successfully competing based on their ability to manage their explicit knowledge.
However, the strategic implications of implementing knowledge management systems that significantly aim to change the way things are done in the organization requires proper consideration and careful planning. The fl agship model for architectural knowledge management with many additional features has been presented in section 2. A potential means is to facilitate architectural changes by providing a design rationale, i. The paper discusses the role of traceability in design, techniques for establishing effective traceability and payoffs and consequences associated with effective and ineffective forms of traceability Throughout the software design process, developers must make decisions and reify them in code. It can also be more effectively defined as the alignment of structure, process, rewards, metrics, and talent with the strategy of the business. Illustrative examples include distributed cognition systems that assist individuals in making interpretations of their situation, reflecting on them, and engaging in dialogue about them with others Boland et al. According to Li et al.
Several architectural views have been used with different purposes during the design process. Organisations have tried knowledge capture , including making content submission mandatory and incorporating rewards into plans. The functional requirements are given as graphs of functional responsibilities where modifiability, efficiency and traceability are considered as the quality attributes. However, when this change is discontinuous, there is a persistent need for continuous renewal of the basic premises underlying the 'best practices' stored in organizational knowledge bases. Knowledge may be of several types, each of which may be made explicit. Integration of knowledge across different contexts opens an organization to new insights.
Knowledge Management: Classic and Contemporary Works. To this point, I have defined explicit knowledge, discussed some of its characteristics, and made a case for explicating knowledge. Technology context addresses the existing information technology infrastructure and capabilities supporting the knowledge management architecture. To this end, we compare approaches known from literature and encountered in industry with knowledge management theory. This article describes the elements of Design Space Analysis and illustrates them by reference to analyses of existing designs and to studies of the concepts and arguments used by designers during design discussions.
Others must take responsibility for access, distribution and presentation. And documenting the architecture is the crowning step to crafting it. Additionally, a robust, seamless and scalable technology infrastructure has been key to enabling the flexibility required for an integrative knowledge management refinery. In this article, we develop a framework for evaluating the expressive adequacy of design rationale representations. Specialized staff groups have evolved to perform tasks such as long-range planning, organizational studies, and systems design. Architectural decision making is a non-trivial task for architects in the software development projects. The goal of this book is to help you decide what information about an architecture is important to capture and to provide guidelines and notations and examples for capturing it.
Currently, a clear specification in software architecture activities and processes in agile environments does not exist. In such an instance, individuals strive to explicitly encode their knowledge into a shared knowledge repository, such as a , as well as retrieving knowledge they need that other individuals have provided codification. To improve the status quo of architectural knowledge sharing tools, we present the design of an architectural knowledge sharing platform. To be useful, traces must be organized according to some modeling framework. Therefore the knowledge must be continually evaluated to ensure that it applies to present context and circumstances.
The Knowledge Repository The design of a knowledge repository reflects the two basic components of knowledge as an object: structure and content. Subsequent phases of organization design include operational design of processes, roles, measures, and reward systems, followed by staffing and other implementation tasks. Shared explicit procedural knowledge lays a foundation for efficiently coordinated action in organizations. We evaluate existing software architecture tools against these architectural requirements. However, managers should not blindly accept the apparent tacitness of knowledge. Its maintenance over time can be costly, especially when maintainers have to recover software architecture knowledge due to poor design documentation.
Design rationale is a topic which implies different things to different people. A relevant corpus of literature has been devoted to inves- tigating solutions for storing architectural knowledge, and a review of the approached is beyond the scope of this work. Despite the recognition of the importance of capturing and reusing architecture knowledge, there is no suitable support mechanism. It is an area of research in which is a central perspective. The explanations of these activities are listed below:. It is suggested that Hegelian and Kantian systems are better suited for wicked environments. Phase one is the definition of a business case, including a clear picture of strategy and design objectives.
We believe that the realization of such a framework will allow an architectural knowledge management systems to integrate with the design, development, and maintenance phases to support stakeholders not only to document design decisions but also to learn from decisions made in the past projects. It provides a wide range of user-defined views of rich, multimedia documents, embeds hyperlinks, and provides an efficient yet flexible distribution channel. Therein lies the crucial role of the humans in facilitating knowledge creation in inquiring organizations. They are important to be kept in mind so that the future development will be consistent with the past. Knowledge Management in Inquiring Organizations by , , www.