Most individuals' first attachment is to their parents or carers. This figures raised to 80% when this occurred in a context of poverty Lyons Ruth 1988. A child who has not formed an attachment will show little emotion when separated from the caregiver. The strangers gradually approaches the child with a toy. Infants were looking after and fed by different women. Procedures: Studied 3000 children, from 141 pre-school centres day-care, volenteernurserys etc Children assessed at 3 and 4 years old.
These findings suggest that the American criteria used in the ' Strange Situation' are not appropriate for other cultures: It would be wrong to suggest that the cultures with high levels of insecure attachments were raising children wrongly. A stranger enters the room and talks with the mother. The strange situation involved a series of stages: · Mother and their infants entered the lab. This could have been due to children having problems so are unwanted. Emotional privation — lack of attachment. Risks of anti-social behaviours at high-quality pre- school. In other words, it describes a relatively strong and lasting emotional tie to another person.
Usually slept with their own mother at night. Validity: The study only used closed Likert Scale questions, which produces limited data. Signs of distress when left alone but could be comforted by caregiver or stranger. This supports cross cultural similarities as it has found that secure attachment is the main type of attachment globally. The babies also suffered short term psychological harm as they showed evidence of distress -Ethical issues using birds, the birds become attached to Researcher and not the mother, it is unethical to use animals in research -Generalizability to humans. Different cultures have different social norms and accepted ways of doing things.
Early affects can be overcome but good experiences later in life. Anxious of environment and resistant to stranger. Leaving a bias issues with natural sample, and not experiment — not very necessarily invasive. German infants appear to be particularly insecure-avoidant in their attachments, although their parents were attentive to their children and sensitive to their needs. After 2 weeks he found babies adjusted well and formed secure attachments.
Indiscriminate attachment phase 3-7 months Infant can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people but is quite happy to be comforted by anyone. In about 6 months babies begin to show a strong attachment - usually to their primary caregiver s. Without Bowlby's theory we would not know that attachment responses are important to change infant's lives for the better, therefore has helped human beings, confirming the validity and reliability of the research useful application. Therefore the mothers were the primary attachment figures. The stranger returns and tries to engage with the child. It is also culture biased as it was only sent out in one small area of the world Rocky Mountains Reliability: Standardised questionnaire sent out to all participants.
Intervention strategies such as the Circle of Security have been created to help caregivers recognise infants' distress signals better and give consistent attachment responses. However, the research evidence to support this is rather weak. However, children adopted after six months, showed disinhibited attachment. Despite childrearing practices different , infants still showed one primary attachment after six months. The result of this is that Japanese and other cultures may appear to be insecurely attached when in fact they are not, makes another culture seem different. With their assistance, you can become well prepared and can avoid having to retake exams. · The mother returned and the stranger then left.
Procedure: Interviewed 44 adolescent thieves. After that, attachment can occur between brothers and sisters, between friends, lovers and with your own children. · Finally, the mother returned and picked up the infant, while the stranger left. In order to practice for this paper you should look at the specimen papers which are at the bottom of this page. Multiple attachment phase 9+ months Attachments develop with other people for example, grandparents or brothers and sisters , although the original attachment remains the strongest. Evolved mechanism: goslings formed monotropic relationship Protects young animals and enhances the likelihood of survival. Had 'control' group of 44 p's who were in clinic due to emotional issues who hadn't commited crimes.
For example, they will start screaming, try to get away from the stranger or appear tense. Infants do not engage in proximity seeking behaviours and appear insecurely attached which suggests that attachment is due to the childrearing practices. The children were between 12 and 18 months old and so should have easily formed attachments by then. Therefore this refutes Bowlby's continuity hypothesis. Conclusion: Shows children can recover from situations if given sufficient aftercare. Can become without a conscience.