The display and of these ceremonies have elicited comparison with the potlatch of the and related North American peoples. That there was a of Indo-European speakers, possibly in waves, dating from the 2nd millennium bce, is clear from archaeological and epigraphic evidence in western Asia. Society As far as the society is concerned, the concept of Varna and the rules of marriage became much more rigid than before. The end of the Vedic Period Civilization in India was marked by significant changes in the field of linguistics, culture and politics. Mesopotamia witnessed the arrival about 1760 bce of the Kassites, who introduced the horse and the chariot and bore Indo-European names. The existence of gahapatis suggests the breaking up of clan ownership of land and the emergence of individual holdings.
The people beyond the Aryavarta were termed the s or mlechchhas , the impure barbarians unfamiliar with the speech and customs of the aryas. The institutional development within these oligarchies suggests a stabilized agrarian economy. After the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization, another glorious civilization flourished in India. Several instances are known of royal ladies in South India excelling themselves in music and fine arts. Vedas, in Sanskrit, means: knowledge.
In addition to the archaeological discussed above, there remains from this period the earliest literary record of Indian , the. Whenever the people went on war they usually evoked blessings of their gods. These weapons were made up of irons. Theories concerning the origins of the Aryans, whose language is also called , relate to the question of what has been called the Indo-European homeland. The development with the most far-reaching consequences for Indian culture is the structure of society that has come to be called caste. Consequently, important as they are to the literary and religious tradition, they are not easily identified with a historical period.
It seems that Puras were fortified places and served as places of refuge during danger of invasion. But just to give you a feel of what was in the Rigveda. Such monasteries were dependent on their neighbourhoods for material support. The commentary part of the Yajurveda belongs to the Samhita Prose period. The patronage of women, especially those of royal families, was to become a noticeable feature.
It is explained by causality through a system. This veda contains the procedures for everyday life. Vedic culture also extended into the western Ganges Plain from earlier now extinct Saraswati river plains. Yoga and Vedanta became the basic elements of the religion. The coronation ceremony was a major social occasion. Precise rules governed the seating arrangement, the agenda, and the order of speaking and debate, which terminated in a decision.
The traditional view that reflects the organization of Indian society has recently been questioned; it has been suggested that the rules of varna conform to a normative or presumptive model, and that the concept of jati is more central to caste functioning. Society and Economy Numerous social changes took place during the early Vedic period. Originally regarded as a land of Aryan speakers, Kamboja soon lost its important status, ostensibly because its people did not follow the sacred Brahmanic rites—a situation that was to occur extensively in the north as the result of the intermixing of peoples and through migration and trade. An occasional lapse into hereditary office on the part of the chief may account for the tendency toward monarchy among these states. A debtor who failed to repay his loans had to serve a period of servitude to the creditor.
An increase in urban settlements and trade is evident not only from references in the literary sources but also from the introduction of two characteristics of urban civilization—a script and coinage. In all probably little trade was there. Every Aryan family took part in the offering of prayers and performing of fire-sacrifice. Kashi maintained close affiliations with its eastern neighbours, and its capital was later to acquire renown as the sacred city of Varanasi Benares. Though we hear the names of Gargi and Maitreyi, whose scholarship was recognized by the society as whole women lost their earlier status. This ceremony was a famous horse sacrifice, in which a specially selected horse was permitted to wander at will, tracked by a body of soldiers; the area through which the horse wandered unchallenged was claimed by the chief or king conducting the sacrifice. The priests performed sacrifices and composed hymns and taught them to the disciples.
Some of these settlements along the rivers evolved into towns, essentially as administrative and craft centres. They had to remain under the protecting care of their male relations. The rest were new states, either freshly created from declining older ones or new areas coming into importance, such as Avanti, Ashvaka, Shurasena, Vatsa, Cedi, Malla, Vrijji, Magadha, and Anga. Agriculture: Reference in Rig-Veda shows, that agriculture was the principal occupation of the people. .
I'll talk more about Indo-European languages in a little bit. You could view these as social roles or classes. Clay tablets dating to about 1400 bce, written at in Upper Egypt in Akkadian cuneiform, mention names of princes that are also Indo-European. Mainly in the land of of seven rivers. Agriculture and cattle rearing were the main profession at that time.
A major transformation occurred in the notion of , which ceased to be merely an office of a war leader; territorial identity provided it with power and status, symbolized by a series of lengthy and elaborate ceremonies—the abhishekha, generally followed by major sacrificial rituals, such as the. Administrative Divisions: The lowest unit of the Rig-Vedic society was the patriarchal family. I find it really interesting because it shows a fairly mature philosophical attitude. Of these, the is believed to be the earliest. The Rig Vedic hymns had no consistent theory regarding life after death.