The causes of individual differences are thus partially attributable to sex, as well as to general factors of heredity and environment. Personality structure as a human universal. Cognitive - our thoughts, beliefs, and ideas about something. Hence, to a large extent, sex determines the direction of the growth and development of individuals. Although promising work has been done searching for the biological bases of individual differences it is possible to sketch out these bases only in the broadest of terms.
Socially intelligent person can easily interact and communicate with others. Generally speaking, all students studying in the same class differ according to their mental ages. De Ceeceo Perhaps the first task of every teacher in a class should be to know and study individual differences among his pupils. School There are three components make the difference between the good and poor schools. Cognitive abilities, preferences, and personality traits tend to covary systematically to create constellations of personal attributes; and these complexes have interdependent developmental implications.
Additional designs include twins reared together or apart, and biological versus adoptive parents, children and siblings. This type of testing is provided by the public school system and also by private psychologists and, in some states, other mental health professionals, such as licensed professional counselors. How each individual attribute operates in a given person will vary according to his or her full constellation of attributes. The judgment that somebody is abnormal is relative and is based on factors such as culture, class, religion, sexuality and so on. Levelling or tracking, classroom grouping, cooperative learning, and individualized instruction are examples of this approach. In such a large class, it is not possible for the teacher to pay individual attention to the students.
It also hardens and assumes a better tone. They accomplish these tasks through the use of market research surveys, experiments, , and consumer focus groups. The distributional pattern of most individual difference variables is well represented by the normal bell-shaped curve. People versus things may be superimposed on the social and realistic themes, respectively. This empirical approach led the way to a more cohesive theory of interest that contributes valuable information regarding how people operate in learning and work environments. Standardization involves establishing the procedure of administration of a test to all persons in the same way under the same conditions. Thus, intelligence-as-process, through interactions with interests and personality, fosters intelligence-as-knowledge.
Alacrity in Learning Difference in the quickness or alacrity in learning is visible not only in children of different ages but also among children in the same age group. His intelligence tests 1905 helped to find out mental differences in degrees of brightness or dullness, in the levels of development as represented by average capacities of children of various ages. And there are an infinite number of total combinations and patterns. John Holland has proposed a model that is particularly useful for interests. It is necessary for a teacher to have a thorough understanding of intellectual abilities of students. It should have the provision for a number of diversified courses and curriculum experiences so that the pupils may get opportunity to study and work in the areas of their own interests and abilities.
Variations Within the Individual: Individual differences in combinations of traits — Actual achievement in any line depends on a combination of traits. Article Shared by In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Third, modify the conditions within which instruction is taking place. The most common family configurations that are used are comparisons of identical monozygotic with fraternal dizygotic twins. Major Domains of Individual Differences The major dimensions of individual differences can be classified into three overlapping clusters: cognitive abilities, preferences interests and values , and personality.
The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient r compares the degree of covariance between these samples with the variance within samples. Similarly they differ in respect of beliefs, opinions and ideas. Subtle differences in neurotransmitter availability and re-uptake vary the sensitivity of individuals to cues about their environment that predict future resource availability and external rewards and punishments. Sex differences: Development of boys and girls exhibits differences due to difference in sex. In order to be useful for the purpose of drawing inferences about the person being tested, it is necessary that the test should be reliable, valid and standardized. A teacher who is looking for new and better teaching strategies is an effective teacher.
It has been observed that in the age of 6, differences in mental age range up to 5 years. Mathematical skills------scientists, engineers, accountants 3. Verbal skills--------authors, journalists, speaker 2. Influence of caste, race and nation: Individuals of different castes and races exhibit very marked differences. The rate of development is not the same for all individuals.
Journal of Applied Psychology Monograph, 78, 679-703. Curriculum: The curriculum should be modified to suit the needs of all types of children. These obvious group differences are sometimes analyzed in terms of the more subtle measures of personality and ability or of real life outcomes e. Just as different samples of words will yield somewhat different estimates of vocabulary, different cognitive tasks e. Many people tend to realize that they have a unique learning style, and it therefore affects how well they learn under certain circumstances. In addition, the specific method seems to be important.