Consider, for example, the claim that a certain elderly professor deserves some respect from his unruly students. New sentencing schemes were also developed that made at least the minimum sentencing mandatory. Ignores differences between offenders which are often related to social inequalities. It lasted from 1945 to 1967. In this case, although the person on the left is over-comepensated by amount A, the person on the right must be over-compensated by a greater amount B, to achieve the same Y-gap, and so to perfectly satisfy the demands of comparative desert, as Kagan sees them.
Morton Deutsch and Peter Coleman San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, Inc. In this case, the external value might be the value of academic achievement. A desert-adjusted theory of intrinsic value could say that, if Smith and Jones each deserves 25 units of welfare, then a world in which they each receive 25 units is better than a world in which Smith receives 50 and Jones receives 0. Idea is that the victim participates in the process but this is not always viable. On this view, helping the undeserving and failing to help the deserving is deemed intrinsically unfair regardless of further consequences. This section considers how these various systems are composed by looking at the major components common to them all.
This can sometimes be a controversial area of the theory, as the circumstances surrounding the commission of crimes vary; therefore, the equality of the punishment can be a tricky area. The police also have the responsibility of investigating crimes, collecting evidence, and work with prosecutors to obtain convictions in court. One could hold, for example, that the obligation to ensure that people get what they deserve is a prima facie duty, in the sense that W. An equally serious objection arises from the fact that some of the institutions that actually exist are morally indefensible. It is also not clear that anyone ever seriously defended this view as an answer to the question about how desert claims can be justified. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Accessibility and predictability are common criteria. Community based era: After it came the community based era that lasted from 1967 to 1980. Well, this is the philosophy behind the just deserts model of justice. But no matter how widely accepted it may be, we do not think that there are strong arguments for it. With this type of philosophy, the government ignores the importance of rehabilitation and the impact it has for the future of offenders and society as a whole.
Other prisoners may have been convicted of serious offenses, and are housed in the local jail awaiting transfer to a state prison. To make a start let us go back to an assumption we quietly made three paragraphs back: that welfare levels are among the things that people deserve. Also, because people have different needs, an equal initial distribution may not result in an equal outcome. Some examples may help to make this distinction clearer. The society would be a veritable wonderland of requited desert in which no one would have any grounds for complaint about being short-changed about anything. We have just seen that in a consequentialist framework this generalization about value leads naturally to another one, about moral obligation: other things being equal, one ought to ensure that people get what they deserve.
D 4 suggests that it is a six-place relation relating a deserver, a desert, two times, a desert base, and a distributor. Through the use of Hamlet 's wordplay, Shakespeare reveals the true nature of Hamlet 's inner self as well as his relationships with the other characters within the play. Court is given discretion to select a long sentence for high risk cases It infringes on a citizen's civil rights to be punished not for what they have done but what may do in the future. So, many eras have passed but none of them has been able to provide an effective and permanent solution to prevent crime. One way to view justice is in terms of equality.
People often frame justice issues in terms of fairness and invoke principles of justice and fairness to explain their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the organizations they are part of, as well as their state or government. Another case mentioned by McLeod involves a child who, through no fault of his own, comes down with a painful illness. Journal Of Criminal Law And Criminology 74: 27- 51. We could build reference to the distributor into the description of the desert. But Divine Moral Desertism concerns things that God does; and benefits or burdens to be received in the afterlife, rather than on earth. The desert base here seems to be having been harmed by the negligent food preparation by the restaurant — yet the patrons were not responsible for having that desert base.
Under the just deserts model, A's penalty must reflect the commission of the murder. A typical entitlement claim is a claim to the effect that someone is entitled to something from someone on some basis. History itself, at various times, seems to offer lessons regarding the complexity of the issue—demonstrating… 1299 Words 6 Pages What is the Just War theory and how did it pertain to St. Another problem with accurately defining corrections is a general disagreement about the philosophy of incarceration. D Thesis, Department of Sociology.
Bibliography Bible The, King James Version Exodus Goode, E. Apart from it, there are juvenile correctional facilities and local jails and other types of prison like Indian country jails. In general, people deserve to be rewarded for their effort and productivity, punished for their transgressions, treated as equal persons, and have their basic needs met. In addition, according to just deserts, the punishment of the offender must be fairly and equally apportioned to all individuals who commit the same crimes. Certain general principles about desert bases have been introduced in an effort to explain why certain properties seem ineligible to serve as desert bases. This highlights an important fact about desert and utility: sometimes it can be expedient to give someone a reward or a punishment that he or she does not deserve. The theory would thus focus on desert bases such that it is the business of a government to take note of the fact that its citizens manifest these bases, and it is the business of that government to try to see to it that its citizens receive the things that they deserve on these bases.
For example, the charge against Rawls is that people actually might deserve the gains flowing from their natural endowments, or at least those they achieve by striving conscientiously. It is important here at the outset that we draw attention to a distinction between desert and another concept with which it might be confused. People who do not work hard and invest imprudently should be held responsible for those choices and not receive assistance from an egalitarian welfare state. Consider the claim that he deserves to be required to work in the fields without pay in virtue of the fact that he is strong and healthy. Again, this is a tricky sociological notion, not easily spelled out. In a practical sense, due process means that the state must respect all legal rights of accused persons.